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¡Ê1¡ËResearch on Automobiles/Fuels to Date

JEPC implemented the Japan Clean Air Program (JCAP), a collaborative research program between automobile and petroleum industries for the purpose of reducing motor vehicle emissions for improving air quality. JCAP I and JCAP II were conducted from fiscal 1997 to 2001 and from fiscal 2002 to 2006, respectively. The results of the JCAP have been reflected in the following policies and programs:

a) Verification of the benefits of cleaner emissions and improved fuel economy due to the introduction of lower sulfur content of gasoline/ diesel fuels:

¢ÍThe introduction of sulfur-free gasoline/ diesel fuels into the domestic market was conducted in January 2005 for the first time in the world, due to the voluntary efforts of petroleum industry.

b) Impact evaluation of 8% ETBE blended gasoline on emissions and practicality:

¢ÍThe member companies of the Petroleum Association of Japan started the introduction of ETBE blended gasoline into the market. (In fiscal 2010, 210,000 KL/ year of crude oil equivalent of ETBE (equivalent to about 360,000 KL/year of bioethanol or, about 840,000 KL/year of ETBE) was used as blending stock for gasoline.)

c) Impact evaluation on exhaust after-treatment devices by the sulfated ash/sulfur/phosphorus in diesel engine oil:

¢ÍThe results were reflected in standardization of diesel engine oil for heavy-duty motor vehicles (JASO DH-2 Standard).

d) Evaluation of air quality by means of high-precision air quality simulation:

¢ÍThe effectiveness of 2009 emission regulations in improving air quality was quantitatively estimated, and the results were reported at the hearing of the Expert Committee on Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emission of the Central Environment Council, the Ministry of the Environment.

Introduction of sulfur-free gasoline and diesel fuel

¡Ê2¡ËJapan Auto-oil Program(JATOP)

Under the Japan Auto-oil Program(JATOP), a five-year collaborative research program launched in fiscal 2007, JPEC has been working on the following programs for establishing optimum automobile/fuel utilization technologies which are expected to solve ¡Èreducing CO2 emissions¡É, ¡Èdiversifying of fuels¡É and ¡Èreducing automobile exhaust emissions¡É.

­¡ Expanding the use of biodiesel fuels

Technological issues inherent to the use of high-level biodiesel fuels such as the decrease in the oxidation stability and low temperature performance, are identified and technical expertise is established, which is including development of countermeasures for both automobiles and fuels.

Biodiesel fuels and their issues

­¢ Expanding the use of biogasoline

Technological issues that may contribute to the expanded use of gasoline containing ETBE or ethanol are clarified, and quality design guidelines are developed on the basis of the changes in the fuel properties including distillation characteristics.

­£ Study on future diesel fuels

Because fuels derived from unconventional petroleum sources and light cycle oils are expected to be used in the future, the impacts of such fuels on the performance of diesel vehicle and the associated technological issues are clarified, and technical expertise is provided to contribute to the market introduction study.

­¤ Study for improving air quality and its evaluation

The air quality simulation model developed under the JCAP is further improved for expanded use. This simulation model is used for understanding the contribution of motor vehicle emissions of NO2 and micro-particulate as well as for estimating the effects of air quality improvement measures, and aiming to reflect the estimation in the policies.

Highly accurate air quality simu£ìation model developed under

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